Boulder, CO Prohibition of Discrimination

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Boulder, CO, US

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Type: Municipal Code

Status: Adopted

Source File: http://www.colocode.com/boulderpdf/title12.pdf

Text:

Chapter 12-1: Prohibition of Discrimination in Housing, Employment, and Public Accommodations

12-1-1 Definitions.
The following terms used in this chapter have the following meanings unless the context clearly requires otherwise:

"Age" means age between forty and sixty-five years.

"Employer" means any person employing any person in any capacity.

"Employment agency" means any person undertaking, with or without compensation, to procure employees or opportunities to work for any person or holding itself out as equipped to do so.

"Gender identity" means a person's various individual attributes, actual or perceived, that may be in accord with, or sometimes opposed to, one's physical anatomy, chromosomal sex, genitalia, or sex assigned at birth.

"Gender variance" means a persistent sense that a person's gender identity is incongruent with the person's biological sex, excluding the element of persistence for persons under age twenty-one and including, without limitation, transitioned transsexuals.

"Genetic characteristics" means all characteristics of an individual that can be transmitted through the person's chromosomes.

"Genital reassignment surgery" means surgery to alter a person's genitals, in order to complete a program of sex reassignment treatment.

"Housing" means any building, structure, vacant land, or part thereof during the period it is advertised, listed, or offered for sale, lease, rent, or transfer of ownership, but does not include transfer of property by will or gift.

"Labor organization" means any organization, or committee or part thereof, that exists for the purpose in whole or in part of collective bargaining, dealing with employers concerning grievances, terms, or conditions of employment, or other mutual aid or protection in connection with employment.

"Marital status" means both the individual status of being single, divorced, separated, or widowed and the relational status of cohabitating and being married or unmarried.

"Minor child" means a person under eighteen years of age.

"Person" or "individual" means any individual, group, association, cooperation, joint apprenticeship committee, joint stock company, labor union, legal representative, mutual company, partnership, receiver, trustee, and unincorporated organization and other legal, commercial, or governmental entity.

"Physical or mental disability" means a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a record of such impairment, or being regarded as having such impairment. The term excludes current use of alcohol or drugs or other disabilities that prevent a person from acquiring, renting, or maintaining property, that would constitute a direct threat to the property or safety of others, or that would prevent performance of job responsibilities.

"Place of accommodation" means any place of business engaged in any sales to the general public and any place that offers services, facilities, privileges, or advantages to the general public or that receives financial support through solicitation of the general public or through governmental subsidy of any kind.

"Sex" means biological sex, the sum of a person's physical characteristics.

"Sex reassignment treatment" means treatment to change a person's sex, based on medically recognized treatment protocols such as that published by the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association.

"Sexual orientation" means the choice of sexual partners, i.e., bisexual, homosexual or hetero-sexual.

"Transitioning transsexual" means a person experiencing gender variance who is undergoing sex reassignment treatment.

"Transitioned transsexual" means a person who has completed genital reassignment surgery. (Ordinance Nos. 4969 (1986); 5061 (1987); 7040 (2000))

12-1-2 Discrimination in Housing Prohibited.

(a) It is an unfair housing practice, and no person:

(1) Who has the right of ownership or possession or the right of transfer, sale, rental, or lease of any housing or any agent of such person shall:
(A) Refuse to show, sell, transfer, rent, or lease or refuse to receive and transmit any bona fide offer to buy, sell, rent, or lease or otherwise to deny to or withhold from any individual such housing because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of that individual or such individual's friends or associates;
(B) Discriminate against any individual because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of the individual or such individual's friends or associates in the terms, conditions, or privileges pertaining to any facilities or services in connection with a transfer, sale, rental, or lease of housing; or
(C) Cause to be made any written or oral inquiry or record concerning the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of an individual seeking to purchase, rent, or lease any housing or of such individual's friends or associates, but nothing in this section prohibits using a form or making a record or inquiry for the purpose of required government reporting or for a program to provide opportunities for persons who have been traditional targets of discrimination on the bases here prohibited;
(2) To whom application is made for financial assistance for the acquisition, construction, rehabilitation, repair, or maintenance of any housing shall:
(A) Make or cause to be made any written or oral inquiry concerning the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parent-hood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of an individual seeking such financial assistance, such individual's friends or associates, or prospective occupants or tenants of such housing, or
(B) Discriminate against any individual because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of such individual, such individual's friends or associates, or prospective occupants or tenants in the term, conditions, or privileges relating to obtaining or use of any such financial assistance;
(3) Shall include in any transfer, sale, rental, or lease of housing any restrictive covenant limiting the use of housing on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability or shall honor or exercise or attempt to honor or exercise any such restrictive covenant pertaining to housing;5
(4) Shall print or cause to be printed or published any notice or advertising relating to the transfer, sale, rental, or lease of any housing that indicates any preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based on race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability;
(5) Shall aid, abet, incite, compel, or coerce the doing of any act prohibited by this section or obstruct or prevent any person from complying with the provisions of this section or attempt either directly or indirectly to commit any act prohibited by this section;6
(6) For the purpose of promoting housing sales, rentals, or leases in a geographic area, shall initiate, instigate, or participate in any representation, advertisement, or contract, directly or indirectly, within such geographic area that changes have occurred, will occur, or may occur in the composition of the geographic area with respect to race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of the owners or occupants or that such changes will or may result in lowering property values, in increased criminal or antisocial behavior, or in declining quality of schools in the geographic area;
(7) Shall discharge, demote, or discriminate in matters of compensation against any employee or agent because of said employee's or agent's obedience to the provisions of this section;
(8) Shall:
(A) Offer, solicit, accept, use, or retain a listing of housing with the understanding that an individual may be discriminated against in the purchase, lease, or rental thereof on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates;
(B) Deny any individual access to or participation in any multiple-listing service, real estate brokers' organization or other service, organization, or facility relating to the business of selling or renting housing; or
(C) Discriminate against such individual on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, parenthood, custody of a minor child, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates;
(9) Shall establish unreasonable rules or conditions of occupancy that have the effect of excluding pregnant women, parents, or households with minor children.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to prohibit:

(1) Any religious or denominational institution or organization that is operated, supervised, or controlled by a religious or denominational organization from limiting admission or giving preference to persons of the same religion or denomination or from making such selection of buyers, lessees, or tenants as will promote a bona fide religious or denominational purpose.
(2)
(A) An owner or lessee from limiting occupancy of a single dwelling unit occupied by such owner or lessee as his or her residence.
(B) An owner from limiting occupancy of rooms or dwelling units in buildings occupied by no more than two families living independently of each other if the owner actually maintains and occupies one of such rooms or dwelling units as his or her residence.
(C) An owner or lessor of a housing facility devoted entirely to housing individuals of one sex from limiting lessees or tenants to persons of that sex.
(3) The transfer, sale, rental, lease, or development of housing de-signed or intended for the use of the physically or mentally disabled, but this exclusion does not permit discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, ancestry, or national origin.
(4) Compliance with any provisions of section 9-8-5, "Occupancy of Dwelling Units," or chapter 10-2, "Housing Code," B.R.C. 1981, concerning permitted occupancy of dwelling units.
(5) Discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, parent-hood, or custody of a minor child in:
(A) Any owner-occupied lot containing four or fewer dwelling units;
(B) Any residential building in which the owner or lessor publicly establishes and implements a policy of renting or selling exclusively to persons fifty-five years of age or older, but only as long as such policy remains in effect;
(C) Any residential institution, as defined in section 9-16-1, "General Definitions," B.R.C. 1981;
(D) Any dwelling unit rented, leased, or subleased for no more than eighteen months while the owner or lessee is temporarily absent, when the owner or lessee leaves a substantial amount of personal possessions on the premises;
(E) Any residential building located on real estate whose title was, as of November 17, 1981, encumbered by a restrictive covenant limiting or prohibiting the residence of minor children on such property, but only so long as such covenant remains in effect; and
(F) Up to one-third of the buildings in a housing complex consisting of three or more buildings; for purposes of this subparagraph, housing complex means a group of buildings each containing five or more units on a contiguous parcel of land owned by the same person or persons.

(c) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall not be construed to require an owner or lessor of property to make any improvement to a housing facility beyond minimal building code standards applicable to the housing facility in question and approved by a state or local agency with responsibility to approve building plans and designs. (Ordinance Nos. 4803 (1984); 5061 (1987); 5117 (1988); 7040 (2000))

12-1-3 Discrimination in Employment Practices Prohibited.

(a) It is a discriminatory or unfair employment practice, and no person:

(1) Shall fail or refuse to hire, shall discharge, shall promote or demote, or shall discriminate in matters of compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment against any individual otherwise qualified or to limit, segregate, or classify employees or applicants for employment in any way that would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect such individual's status as an employee because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates; but with regard to mental or physical disability, it is not a discriminatory or unfair employment practice for a person to act as provided in this paragraph if there is no reasonable accommodation that such person can make with regard to the disability, the disability actually disqualifies the individual from the job, and the disability has a significant impact on the job;
(2) Shall refuse to list and properly classify for employment or refer an individual for employment in a known available job for which such individual is otherwise qualified because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates or to comply with a request from an employer for referral of applicants for employment if the request indicates either directly or indirectly that the employer discriminates in employment on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability; but with regard to mental or physical disability, it is not a discriminatory or unfair employment practice for an employment agency to refuse to list and properly classify for employment or refuse to refer an individual for employment in a known available job for which such individual is otherwise qualified if there is no reasonable accommodation that the employer can make with regard to the disability, the disability actually disqualifies the individual from the job, and the disability has a significant impact on the job;
(3) Shall exclude or expel any individual otherwise qualified from full membership rights in a labor organization, otherwise discriminate against any members of such labor organization in the full enjoyment of work opportunity, or limit, segregate, or classify its membership or applicants for membership, or classify or fail or refuse to refer for employment such individual in any way that deprives such individual of employment opportunities, limits employment opportunities, or otherwise adversely affects such individual's status as an employee or applicant for employment because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates;
(4) Shall print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement, or publication, or to use any form of application for employment or membership, or to make any inquiry in connection with prospective employment or membership that expresses, either directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification, or discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability or intent to make any such limitation, specification, or discrimination, unless based upon a bona fide occupational qualification;
(5) Shall establish, announce, or follow a policy of denying or limiting, through a quota system or otherwise, opportunities for employment or membership in a group on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability;
(6) Shall aid, abet, incite, compel, or coerce the doing of any act defined in this section to be a discriminatory or unfair employment practice, obstruct or prevent any person from complying with the provisions of this section, or attempt, either directly or indirectly, to commit any act defined in this section to be a discriminatory or unfair employment practice;
(7) That is an employer, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs shall discriminate against any individual on the basis of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates in admission to or employment in any program established to provide apprenticeship or other training; but with regard to mental or physical disability, it is not a discriminatory or unfair employment practice to withhold the right to be admitted to or to participate in any such program if there is no reasonable accommodation that can be made with regard to the disability, the disability actually disqualifies the individual from the program, and the disability has a significant impact on participation in the program;
(8) Shall use in the recruitment or hiring of individuals any employment agency, placement service, training school or center, labor organization, or any other employee referral source known by such person to discriminate on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability;
(9) Shall use in recruitment, hiring, upgrading, or promoting any test that such person knows or has reason to know tends to discriminate on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability; but it is not a discriminatory or unfair employment practice to provide employment opportunities for classes of individuals that have been the traditional targets of discrimination or to use a form or make a record or inquiry for the purpose of required government reporting, and with regard to mental or physical disability, it is not a discriminatory or unfair employment practice for a person to act as prohibited in this subsection if there is no reasonable accommodation that the employer can make with regard to the disability, the disability actually disqualifies the individual from the job, and the disability has a significant impact on the job; and
(10) Seeking employment, shall publish or cause to be published an advertisement with a specification or limitation based upon race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, age, or mental or physical disability, unless based upon a bona fide occupational qualification.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to prohibit a religious organization or institution from restricting employment opportunities to persons of the religious denomination or persons of other defined characteristics and advertising such restriction if a bona fide religious purpose exists for the restriction.

(c) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section concerning discrimination based on marital status do not apply to the provision of employee health or disability insurance.

(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a workplace supervisor may require that a worker not change gender presentation in the workplace more than three times in any eighteen-month period.(Ordinance Nos. 5061 (1987); 5468 (1992); 7040 (2000))

12-1-4 Discrimination in Public Accommodations Prohibited.

(a) It is a discriminatory practice, and no person shall:

(1) Refuse, withhold from, or deny to any individual because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates, the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of a place of public accommodation; or
(2) Publish, circulate, issue, display, post, or mail any written or printed communication, notice, or advertisement that indicates that the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of a place of public accommodation will be refused, withheld from, or denied an individual or that such individual's patronage or presence at a place of public accommodation is unwelcome, objectionable, unacceptable, or undesirable because of the race, creed, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender variance, genetic characteristics, marital status, religion, national origin, ancestry, or mental or physical disability of such individual or such individual's friends or associates.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to prohibit:

(1) Persons from restricting admission to a place of public accommodation to individuals of one sex if such restriction bears a bona fide relationship to the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of such place of public accommodation; or
(2) Any religious or denominational institution that is operated, supervised, or con-trolled by a religious or denominational organization from limiting admission to persons of the same religion or denomination as will promote a bona fide religious or denominational purpose.
(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, transitioned transsexuals may use the locker rooms and shower facilities of their new sex and shall be protected by section 12-1-4, "Discrimination in Public Accommodations Prohibited," B.R.C. 1981, from any discrimination in their use of such locker rooms and shower rooms.
(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, transitioning transsexuals shall be granted reasonable accommodation in access to locker rooms and shower facilities.(Ordinance Nos. 5061 (1987); 7040 (2000))

12-1-5 Prohibition on Retaliation for and Obstruction of Compliance With Chapter

(a) No person shall use a threat, communicated by physical, oral, or written means, of harm or injury to another person, such other person's reputation, or such person's property, or discriminate against any person because such person has entered into a conciliation agreement under this chapter, because the final or any other ruling in any proceeding brought under this chapter has been in such other person's favor, because such other person has op-posed a discriminatory practice, or because such other person has made a charge, filed a complaint, testified, assisted, or participated in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing before a person charged with the duty to investigate or hear complaints relating to problems of discrimination, but this section does not apply when the threat involves knowingly placing or attempting to place a person in fear of imminent bodily injury by use of a deadly weapon;

(b) No person shall willfully obstruct, hinder, or interfere with the performance or the proper exercise of a duty, obligation, right, or power of the city manager, the municipal court, or other official or body charged with a duty, obligation, right, or power under this chapter.

12-1-6 Provisions of This Chapter Supplement Other Code Sections.
Anything to the contrary notwithstanding, the substantive terms of this chapter and the remedies herein provided supplement those terms and remedies contained in this code and other ordinances of the city.

12-1-7 City Manager May Appoint Person to Assist in Enforcement.
The city manager may appoint a person to carry out any or all of the duties, obligations, rights, or powers under the provisions of this chapter, who may have such job title as the manager designates.

12-1-8 Administration and Enforcement of Chapter.

(a) Any person claiming to be aggrieved by a violation of this chapter may file a written complaint under oath with the city manager:

(1) Within one year of any alleged violation of section 12-1-2, "Discrimination in Housing Prohibited," B.R.C. 1981; within one hundred eighty days of any alleged violation of section 12-1-3, "Discrimination in Employment Practices Prohibited," B.R.C. 1981; or within sixty days of any alleged violation of section 12-1-4, "Discrimination in Public Accommodations Prohibited," B.R.C. 1981; and
(2) The complaint shall state:
(A) The name of the alleged violator, or facts sufficient to identify such person;
(B) An outline of the material facts upon which the complaint is based;
(C) The date of the alleged violation;
(D) That any conduct of the complainant was for the purpose of obtaining the housing, employment, or public accommodation in question and not for the purpose of harassment or entrapment of the person against whom the complaint is made; and
(E) That a complaint concerning this same matter has not been filed with another agency or that any complaint concerning this matter filed with another agency has been dismissed by such agency with-out a final judgment on the merits.

(b) The city manager shall furnish a copy of the complaint to the person against whom the complaint is made.

(c) Before conducting a full investigation of the complaint, the city manager may attempt to negotiate a settlement of the dispute between the parties, if the manager deems that such an attempt is practicable.

(d) If the city manager does not deem it practicable to attempt a preinvestigation settlement or if such settlement attempt is unsuccessful, the manager shall conduct an investigation to determine whether there is probable cause to believe the allegations of the complaint.

(1) If the city manager determines there is no probable cause, the manager shall dismiss the complaint and take no further action thereon other than that of informing the concerned persons that the complaint has been dismissed.
(2) If the city manager determines that there is a sufficient basis in fact to support the complaint, the manager shall endeavor to eliminate the alleged violation by a conciliation agreement, signed by all parties and the manager, whereunder the alleged violation is eliminated and the complainant is made whole to the greatest extent practicable.
(3) The city manager shall furnish a copy of such signed conciliation agreement to the complainant and the person charged. The terms of a conciliation agreement may be made public, but no other information relating to any complaint, its investigation, or its disposition may be disclosed without the consent of the complainant and the person charged.
(4) A conciliation agreement need not contain a declaration or finding that a violation has in fact occurred.
(5) A conciliation agreement may provide for dismissal of the complaint without prejudice.

(e) If a person who has filed a complaint with the city manager is dissatisfied with a decision by the manager to dismiss the complaint under paragraph (d)(1) of this section or if conciliation attempts as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section are unsuccessful to resolve the complaint, the aggrieved party may request a hearing before the City of Boulder Human Relations Commission11, which shall hold a hearing on the appeal. If the commission finds violations of this chapter, it may issue such orders as it deems appropriate to remedy the violations, including, without limitation, orders:

(1) Requiring the person found to have violated this chapter to cease and desist from the discriminatory practice;
(2) Providing for the sale, exchange, lease, rental, assignment, or sublease of housing to a particular person;
(3) Requiring an employer to: reinstate an employee; pay backpay for discriminatory termination of employment, layoff, or denial of promotion opportunity; make an offer of employment in case of discriminatory refusal of employment; make an offer of promotion in the case of discriminatory denial of promotion opportunity; or take other appropriate equitably remedial action;
(4) Requiring that a person make available a facility of public accommodation in the case of discriminatory denial of the use of such facility;
(5) Requiring that a person found to have violated this chapter report compliance with the order or orders issued pursuant to this section; and
(6) Requiring that a person found to have violated any provisions of this chapter make, keep, and make available to the commission such reasonable records as are relevant to determine whether such person is complying with the commission's orders.

(f) No person shall fail to comply with an order of the human relations commission.

(g) The city manager may initiate and file a complaint pursuant to this section based on the information and belief that a violation of this chapter has occurred. The manager may file such a complaint pursuant to the following standards:

(1) The manager has supervised any investigative testing used;
(2) Any investigative testing is not designed to induce a person to behave in other than such person's usual manner; and
(3) The case is not brought for the purpose of harassment.

(h) No complaint shall be accepted against the city or a city-appointed agency unless there is no state or federal protection for the human rights violation set forth in the complaint. (Ordinance Nos. 4879 (1985); 7040 (2000))

12-1-9 Judicial Enforcement of Chapter.

(a) The city manager may file a criminal complaint in municipal court seeking the imposition of the criminal penalties provided in section 5-2-4, "General Penalties," B.R.C. 1981, for violations of this chapter.

(b) The city manager may seek judicial enforcement of any orders of the human relations commission.

(c) Any party aggrieved by any final action of the human relations commission may seek judicial review thereof in the District Court in and for the County of Boulder by filing a complaint for review within thirty days after the date of the final action under the Colorado Rules of Civil Procedure 106(a)(4).

12-1-10 City Contractors Shall Not Discriminate.
The city manager shall require that all contractors providing goods or services to the city certify their compliance with the provisions of this chapter.

12-1-11 Authority to Adopt Rules.
The city manager and the human relations commission are authorized to adopt rules to implement the provisions of this chapter.

12-1-12 Gender Variance Exemptions.
Competitive sports and sports-related records and sex-segregated housing for persons under age twenty-five shall be exempt from the gender variance discrimination provisions of this chapter. (Ordinance No. 7040 (2000))

12-1-13 Elements of Proof.
Proof of the characteristics of the victim, while admissible to prove intent, and to determine reasonable accommodation for disabilities and for transitioning transsexuals, shall not otherwise be required as an element of proof in and of itself. The essential elements of proof shall be of discriminatory intent and of a nexus between such intent and an action or refusal or failure to act identified in this chapter. (Ordinance No. 7040 (2000))

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